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Notes

1 Health information within the scope of this Plan includes that which is governed by HIPAA as well as that known as "sensitive information" and that governed by other applicable laws outside of HIPAA. The health information can be sourced electronically from medical devices, user-generated information, government datasets, and many other bits of information that inform health-related decision-making (both inside and outside the care delivery system). Electronic health information must also be connected in interoperable ways and supported by health IT that is useful and suitable for each authorized user.

2 Mosen DM, Schmittdiel J, Hibbard J, Sobel D, Remmers C, Bellows J. Is patient activation associated with outcomes of care for adults with chronic conditions? J Ambul Care Manage. 2007;30(1):21-9.

3 Patel V, Barker W, Siminerio E. Individuals' access and use of their online medical record nationwide. ONC Data Brief, no.20. Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology: Washington DC. September 2014. Available at: http://www.healthit.gov/sites/default/files/consumeraccessdatabrief_9_10_14.pdf

4 In the context of this Plan, interoperability is defined as the ability of a system to exchange electronic health information with and use electronic health information from other systems without special effort on the part of the user. Interoperability is made possible by the implementation of standards. Available at: http://www.ieee.org/education_careers/education/standards/standards_glossary.html

5 Booske BC, Athens JK, Kindig DA, Park H, Remington PL. Different perspectives for assigning weights to determinants of health. county health rankings working paper, 2010. Available at: http://uwphi.pophealth.wisc.edu/publications/other/different-perspectives-for-assigning-weights-to-determinants-of-health.pdf

6 National Research Council. The learning health system and its innovation collaboratives (IOM roundtable on value and science-driven health care). Accessed from: http://www.iom.edu/Activities/Quality/~/media/Files/Activity%20Files/Quality/VSRT/Core%20Documents/ForEDistrib.pdf

7 Charles, D, Gabriel, M, Searcy T. Adoption of electronic health record systems among U.S. non-federal acute care hospitals: 2008-2014. ONC Data Brief, no.23. 2015; Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology: Washington DC. Available at: http://healthit.gov/sites/default/files/data-brief/2014HospitalAdoptionDataBrief.pdf

8 Hsiao C, Hing E. Use and characteristics of electronic health record systems among office-based physician practices: United States, 2001-2013. NCHS Data Brief, no.143.2014; National Center for Health Statistics: Hyattsville MD. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/databriefs/db143.htm

9 Swain M, Charles D, Patel V, Searcy T. Health Information Exchange among U.S. Non-federal Acute Care Hospitals: 2008-2014. ONC Data Brief, no.24. 2015; Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology: Washington DC. Available at: http://healthit.gov/sites/default/files/data-brief/ONC_DataBrief24_HIE_Final.pdf

10 American Medical Association. Blueprint for stage 3 of the meaningful use program and the recommendations for improving Stages 1 and 2. Available at: https://download.ama-assn.org/resources/doc/washington/x-pub/2014-10-14-meaningful-use.pdf

11 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Report to Congress: Report on health information blocking. 2015. Available at: http://healthit.gov/sites/default/files/reports/info_blocking_040915.pdf

12 Burwell SM. Setting value-based payment goals--HHS efforts to improve U.S. health care. N Engl J Med. 2015;372(10):897-9. Available at: http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMp1500445

13 Office of the National Coordinator for Health IT. Everyone has a role in protecting and securing health information. Available at: http://www.healthit.gov/policy-researchers-implementers/everyone-has-role-protecting-and-securing-health-information

14 For more information, see The Department of Health, Education and Welfare's (HEW) Code of Fair Information Practices, also known as fair information practice principles (FIPPS), 1973. Available at: http://www.justice.gov/opcl/docs/rec-com-rights.pdf

15 For further discussion, see, Draft Nationwide Interoperability Roadmap: Available at: http://www.healthit.gov/policy-researchers-implementers/interoperability

16 Jones SS, Rudin RS, Shekelle PG, Shanman R, Timmer M, Motala A, Perry TR. Health information technology: An updated systematic review with a focus on meaningful use functionalities (Prepared by Southern California Evidence Based Practice Center under Contract No. HHSP23337020T) Washington, D.C. February 2014. Available at: http://www.healthit.gov/sites/default/files/systematic_review_final_report_508_compliant.pdf

17 Federal Communications Commission Strategic Plan 2015-2018. Available at: https://apps.fcc.gov/edocs_public/attachmatch/DOC-331866A1.pdf

18 Federal Communications Commission. 2015 Broadband progress report. Available at: https://www.fcc.gov/reports/2015-broadband-progress-report

19 Chopra A. Innovative State: How new technologies can transform government. New York: Atlantic Monthly Press, 2015. Print.

20 Federal Trade Commission Guidance, Complying with the FTC's health breach notification rule. April 2010. Available at: https://www.ftc.gov/tips-advice/business-center/guidance/complying-ftcs-health-breach-notification-rule